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Archer’s annual STEM Symposium is an opportunity for Los Angeles high school students who have completed independent or small group projects in STEM to present their findings. Students are invited to present their research in the fields of molecular biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering.

The Archer RISE Award honors exceptional young women for their innovative scientific research or engineering design projects that further existing knowledge or develop solutions to pressing scientific challenges. Finalists for the RISE Award are noted in throughout the online program and will be awarded at lunch on May 21.

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Saturday, May 21
 

9:00am

Check-In and Breakfast

Please check-in at the registration table before attending the poster session and talking with researchers about their projects. Light breakfast provided.


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:00am - 10:00am
Upper School Courtyard (East Side of Dining Hall)

9:15am

A Comparative Analysis of Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence: Nature's Light Show
Bioluminescence has broad and unexpected commercial applications, from its proposed use in streetlights to crop growth indicators. In our research, we are exploring both the processes and the proteins involved in bioluminescence. The first portion of our experimentation will consist of analyzing known concentrations of chemiluminescent solutions, attempting to utilize a visible spectrophotometer to understand and quantify luminescence and generate a calibration curve relating concentration to chemiluminescence. We will then study the process of bioluminescence in dinoflagellates and vibrio fischeri and take data in the same manner, hoping to both quantify the proteins in the lab and learn about their mechanism of action. By using a lux meter in a light-controlled enclosure we will analyze exactly how exposure to light and darkness over time affects the organisms' ability to luminesce. The concluding portion of our research will consist of analyzing how pollutants could affect the brightness and longevity of dinoflagellate and vibrio fischeri luminescence.

Exhibitors
AD

Andi Delgado

The Webb Schools
The Webb Schools; Grade 10
EH

Emily Hupe

The Webb Schools
The Webb Schools; Grade 10


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

A Rapid Urinary Detector for Lyme Disease
This research project was aimed to create a low-cost and rapid Lyme disease detector that does not require the capabilities of a lab and, therefore, can be used at home. The process was guided by the question, can a novel, qualitative lateral flow assay detect sparse Lyme Disease antigens in urine? The lateral flow assay was designed with the goal of taking a maximum time of 30 minutes to obtain results once the detector is dipped in urine, similar to a pregnancy test. It was crucial to design a biosensor (a detective that can test extremely low concentrations) that detects antigens and not antibodies for Lyme disease because the antibodies develop well after the antigens (OspA, OspB, OspC) have infiltrated the immune system, making early diagnosis impossible. The antigens are outer-surface proteins that are shed by the bacteria in the body before the adverse effects take place. A lateral flow assay detector that took advantage of the avidin-biotin interaction and heat shock was developed in order to answer the question. In the trials to test the detector, purchased antigens were diluted in water to reach concentration levels that would be found in the urine at various stages of the disease. Currently, tests require lab technologies, use serum, and have a low accuracy rate, and there is not a single point-of-care detector that can be taken at home and give results in real time. Thus, the success of a cost-effective, accurate and rapid self-examination urinary detector for Lyme disease is unprecedented.

Exhibitors
MY

Marine Yamada

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Acid-stable oxygen evolution reaction photocatalyst using titanium dioxide-supported copper vanadate
The Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences InvenTeam received $4,500 from the Lemelson-MIT InvenTeams Grant Program to invent a product that would assist homeowners and water departments in measuring domestic water usage. As California enters the fifth year of one of its worst droughts in history, consumers and suppliers of water have been strongly encouraged to lower water usage. Recognizing that 25% of used water is residential, the team has designed and manufactured the H2.O Attachment for a household water meter that provides live water usage data through a mobile application. This invention increases consumers' awareness of water usage and detects leaks. Real time access to water usage data allows for an active approach to monitoring and lowering water consumption. Additionally, correspondents at a nearby water meter facility have expressed encouragement and excitement at the prospects of integrating the attachment with current procedures and products. The device relies on a microcontroller-linked camera which sends images to a server for analysis, generating numeric data from captured image files. These figures are then converted into easily read and digested displays via the mobile application, accessible on a smartphone, tablet, or other device. The app provides real time display of water usage with a graph relating volume of water to time and easily digestible graphics, such as bath tubs and pools. The app also offers a digital badge reward system to encourage lowered consumption.

Exhibitors
BB

Brianna Bolin

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11
ID

Isabella Dominguez

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11
MK

Minji Kim

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11
AL

Asia Leong

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Assembly of an easy-to-modify photosynthetic bacterial chassis
The goal of the project is to move genes for Photosystem II from the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii into E. coli bacteria for use as a hydrogen-producer and potential biofuel. PSII is capable of photo-electrolyzing water efficiently and inexpensively with sunlight. Within PSII, enzymes capture photons of light to energize electrons that are then transferred through a variety of coenzymes and cofactors to reduce plastoquinone to plastoquinol. The energized electrons are replaced by oxidizing water to form molecular oxygen and hydrogen ions, which can be used as fuel and for other uses. C. reinhardtii was selected due to its ability, under certain circumstances to switch from oxygen to hydrogen production. However, C. reinhardtii is slow-growing and difficult to manipulate relative to well-studied bacteria like E. coli, so we have begun the process of moving the core genes of PSII into E. coli, beginning with genes psbD and psbT.

Exhibitors
LC

Laura Chen

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 10
VC

Victoria Chen

Alverno High School; Grade 10
EW

Evina Wang

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 10


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Bacteria -- a more sensitive dissolved oxygen readout?
In this study, dissolved oxygen removal techniques were tested and evaluated in preparation for establishing growth curves of E. coli HB101 under variously anoxic conditions in order to construct a bacterial oxygen sensor. In theory, the sensor would be used to test the water-splitting capabilities of metal oxide spots quantitatively, in conjunction with the Solar Energy Activity Lab kit.

Exhibitors
MD

Marisa Dragos

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11
AH

Amanda Hill

Alverno High School; Grade 11
AL

Alicia Lindheimer

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11
AW

Alexis Winstanley

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Construction & Analysis of a D.I.Y. Spectrophotometer: Can I get a Watt Watt?
A spectrophotometer is an integral part of a traditional chemistry course for most high school students. It is a tool that measures absorption of visible light and is used by scientists in real world situations including, but not limited to, research in the life sciences, chemistry, and deep-sea exploration. Depending on the capabilities, however, the price for a spectrophotometer ranges from a few hundred dollars to tens of thousands. Our goal is to replicate an experiment to build a spectrophotometer utilizing Apple technology (iPhones & iPads) and Windows software, which are more accessible and cost efficient to schools that lack the funding for a standard spectrophotometer. Once we have built the spectrophotometer, we plan to run multiple experiments to test the precision and accuracy of our instrument in comparison to a standard classroom spectrophotometer. We will also conduct a detailed cost analysis of typical classroom spectrophotometers compared to our home-made version. If the iPhone/iPad is able to complete experiments with just as much precision and accuracy as the spectrophotometer, students around the world will be able to access lab experiences that they might not have been able to previously.

Exhibitors
AR

Anjali Reddy

The Webb Schools; Grade 10
MS

Madison Steinorth

The Webb Schools
The Webb Schools; Grade 10


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Effect of Green Coffee Bean Extract on Obesity and Alzheimer's Disease in C. elegans
Alzheimer's (AD), a neurodegenerative disease suffered nationwide, is the most common form of dementia and worsens as it progresses. Extracellular beta-amyloid protein deposits constitute amyloid plaques in brains that are affected by Alzheimer's. In addition, hyperphosphorylated tau proteins contribute to the plaque build-up through constructing neurofibrillary tangles. No clear treatment has been able to stop the disease or reverse its progression. However, connections between Alzheimer's and obesity have been established to further the search for a cure in AD. The study featured transgenic AD models of C. elegans as test subjects, either individually possessing mutated beta amyloids or hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. A transgenic model possessing the tub-1 gene will serve to measure obesity. Natural homeopathic antioxidants, specifically green coffee bean extract, have been shown to reduce inflammation and weight gain factors in obesity. Through a chemotaxis assay, green coffee bean extract tested the relation between the supplement's ability to suppress weight gain and improve memory conditions in transgenic models of C. elegans at different dosages. The effect of green coffee bean extract on protein buildup in the modified AD C. elegans models was then confirmed through a thioflavin-S staining assay.

Exhibitors
MA

Madelyn Arzt

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Effect of Magnetic Fields on the Arion distinctus in the Presence of Various Wavelengths of Light
The electromagnetic sensing ability found in many different vertebrates and invertebrates is mostly mediated through the opioid receptors, which receive and use opioids to control the feeling of pain. This sensing ability has been shown to be light dependent on the Cepea nemoralis (garden snail). Most of this research has been done using the Cepea nemoralis (garden snail) but very little been done using the Arion distinctus (land slug). This experiment continues the research done by Garrick et al (2015), using the Arion distinctus as the experimental subject and the Cepea nemoralis as a control group. The experiment was conducted by injecting the slugs and snails with an Enkephalinase Inhibitor, followed by a 15min exposure to a ±60μT magnetic field while the slugs are placed in two different wavelengths of light (red light- 730 nm and blue light - 455nm). This research tested the effect of the different wavelengths of light on the electromagnetic sensing abilities of the Arion distinctus (garden slug). This work is significant because it expands our current knowledge on how many animals sense and interact with their environment. In addition, it furthers our understanding of electromagnetic sensing in invertebrates and how it relates to light sensing. This research also demonstrates a new species with this electromagnetic sensing ability.

Exhibitors
SG

Sofia Garrick

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Effects Ocean Acidification on Dimethylsulfide Production by Emiliania Huxleyi
Dimethyl sulfide is a trace gas commonly produced by marine algae. Recent studies indicate that dimethyl sulfide plays an important role in cloud formation which, in turn, has potential to impact global climate. However, the burning of fossil fuels has polluted the air with excess CO2 which is absorbed by the ocean. This results in ocean acidification. This study will determine how ocean acidification will affect the overall production of dimethyl sulfide in relatively acidic waters.

Exhibitors
LN

Leyla Namazie

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Effects of Natural Hallucinogens Salvia divinorum and Myristicin on Aggression in D. Melanogaster
Salvia and nutmeg are potent natural hallucinogenic agents that alter human processing and behaviour. Their effects on aggression remain poorly understood and further research into the effects could better our understanding of natural psychoactive drugs. The extracts from hallucinogens salvinorin A in Salvia divinorum and myristicin in nutmeg will be used to test their effects on aggression in Drosophila melanogaster. Two strains of Drosophila will be used to test the effects of the hallucinogens; a regular, wild-type strain as the experimental group and a hyperaggressive strain as the control group. Each strain of Drosophila will be tested for increased aggression with either no drug, salvinorin A or myristicin. A fighting arena will be used to carrying out the testing of the hallucinogens on aggression.

Exhibitors
HK

Haley Kerner

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Fighting HIV Infection in Teens--The Smart Way
Young, heterosexual women between the ages of 14-24 are most at risk in the United States today for this sexually transmitted disease. While it remains unclear why there has been a spike in infection rates amongst this age group, I used my research on classroom teaching methods to arm Sacred Heart students with the knowledge necessary to combat these odds. By examining the different types of teaching techniques on infectious diseases, I curated a hands on and discussion-based curriculum to address the level of understanding of transmissible diseases amongst Sacred Heart students. Based on the research conducted on teaching methodology, I was able to quantify the efficiency of each simulation activity based on the level of improved-understanding the students show in their post-simulation surveys. Through the use of pre-simulation surveys, I am able to gauge the level of understanding, or lack-thereof, of infectious diseases such as HIV. The simulations will be crafted to build upon the concrete knowledge exemplified in the surveys, while correcting lapses in understanding.

Exhibitors
IM

Isabella Martin

Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy
Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Glowing Bacteria: Lighting the Path to New Antibiotics
Bacteria modify their behavior according to their population density using a cell-cell communication system called quorum sensing, which Vibrio harveyi uses to produce bioluminescence. In my project, a range of concentrations of three safe plant extracts that are known to have quorum sensing inhibitory properties were added to samples of Vibrio harveyi to learn about toxicity and the extent of change in the bioluminescence as a function of concentration. I predicted the effect of the substances to exponentially decrease the bioluminescence of the bacteria according to concentration. Quorum sensing is involved in so many bacterial behaviors that control of the system can pose solutions to many problems. Specifically, virulent bacteria use quorum sensing to activate their pathogenicity, so this type of research could eventually be used as a new form of antibiotic since current medicine is producing antibiotic resistant bacteria.

Exhibitors
KF

Kelly Fradet

Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy
Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Going Into the Light: The Effects of Antioxidants On Planarian Negative Phototactic Behavior
Photophobia, also known as light sensitivity, is an intolerance towards light. Photophobia is not an eye disease, but it can be a symptom of other illnesses such as severe headaches and migraines. Antioxidants may help with alleviating migraines and decreasing oxidative stress, therefore decreasing light sensitivity. Planarians are free-living aquatic flatworms whose photophobic response to light can be tested because of their central nervous system and basic cerebral eyes connected to the brain. In this experiment, the planarians were split into 4 groups: a control group not treated with any antioxidant, a group treated for 15 days with Lutein, a group treated for 15 days with vitamin A, and a group treated for 15 days with vitamin C. They were placed in a testing dish divided into 4 quadrants, and a light was placed above the testing dish. Their responses to the light were recorded in 2 minute intervals. The questions being answered were, how do the antioxidants Lutein, vitamin A, and vitamin C each affect the planarian negative phototactic behavior? In other words, do planarians become less sensitive to light when given an antioxidant? If so, which of the three antioxidants helps combat photophobia the most? This research is important because it will help further our understanding of eye development in humans and help discover more effective ways to deal with photophobia.

Exhibitors
HC

Haley Cohen

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Is Phosphorus the Missing Ingredient for Bioremediation Success?
Oil spills have proven to be catastrophic messes that are difficult to clean up. Skims, booms, in situ burning, and chemical dispersants are a few of the many methods to remove the pollution; yet they are not the safest or most effective. Bioremediation–a naturally occurring process that breaks down the oil– can clear nearly 100% of the spill and does not harm the spill sites native organisms, but the bioremediators, such as the bacteria–Alcanivorax borkumensis –are too slow to show immediate success. With the presence of specific nutrients, bioremediation has the potential to become the leading cleanup method. The effect of nutrients available to Alcanivorax borkumensis in its growth media was tested. Previous work has shown the importance of nitrogen supplied to the bacteria in different forms, whether it is provided as a nitrate (KNO3) or the organic nitrogen present in the peptone ingredient of the standard growth media. It has also been shown that phosphorus is an important supplement for bacterial bioremediation. Moreover, fertilizers that provide nitrogen and phosphorus have improved the bioremediation effect of Alcanivorax. However, studies looking at changes in solely the phosphorus concentration available to the bacteria are limited. Using a broth to recreate oceanic conditions, my work explores how varying the phosphorus ingredient can influence overall bacterial growth of the responsible bioremediator– Alcanivorax borkumensis.

Exhibitors
KM

Kristina Mercolino

Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy
Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Killer Combos: Cooperative Cytotoxicity of Plant Hormones with Known Chemotherapy
Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA), a plant stress hormone, has been shown to selectively target cancer cells and induce apoptosis by dissociating hexokinase, a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway that is overexpressed in cancer cells, from the outer mitochondrial membrane. Because MeJA uses the glycolytic pathway to induce apoptosis, specifically targeting hexokinase, it functions well as a selective cytotoxic agent and sensitizes other chemotherapeutic agents to have increased efficacy in cancer cytotoxicity. Perillyl Alcohol (POH), a plant-derived hormone, has been used in combination therapies for cancer treatment and has been found to have similar sensitizing cytotoxic effects to MeJA. Although it has successfully induced apoptosis in a variety of cell lines, the mechanisms by which POH acts are unknown . In this study we aimed to contribute to the characterization of POHs apoptotic mechanisms through a comparative study of combination treatments between MeJA and POH with common chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin and etoposide). Cytotoxicity levels were tested in SKBR3 breast cancer cell lines and assayed using the Sulforhodamine B dye and microplate readers. In addition to the SKBR3 cell lines we tested two mutants of the same cell lines that express the molecules tDrrp and T75A. tDrrp is the truncated form of a protein that allows breast cancer to become resistant to herceptin treatment; T75A is tDrrps mutant that is supposed to render it inactive. Our research progressed to a data collection and analysis of POH and MJ combination effects on tDrrp expressing cancer cells, and normal cancer cells.

Exhibitors
AC

Alyssa Carter

Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy
Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy; Grade 12
LD

Laura DiPietro

Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy
Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Muscadine Grape Seed Extract as a Treatment for Obesity in Tub-1 C. elegans
The objective of this research was to test if Muscadine Grape seed extract had an effect on lowering triglyceride levels in C. elegans. By testing Muscadine Grape seed extract's effect on lowering triglyceride content levels, Muscadine Grape seed extract's potential as a treatment for obesity could be determined.For this research both the N2 wild type and tub-1 mutant C. elegans, which model the presence of obesity in the body, were utilized. The tub-1 mutant, which lacked the ability to regulate lipid or fat accumulation and as a result had excess body fat, showed the effects of Muscadine Grape seed extract as a treatment for obesity by lowering the C. elegans fat levels. This experiment used a Triglyceride Colorimetric Assay which measured Triglyceride, the main constituent of animal fat, amounts in the body. In the assay, Triglyceride was broken down into free fatty acids and glycerol. Then the plate reader read the sample to determine the amount of glycerol there was in each well, which correlated to how much Triglyceride there was in each well. Each well contained homogenized C. elegans fed either 5%, 10%, or 15% Muscadine Grape seed extract or no Muscadine Grape seed extract at all (Control). This meant that the assay showed the difference in triglyceride content between the different doses of Muscadine Grape seed extract, determining if Muscadine Grape seed extract was treatment for obesity and lowered Triglyceride levels in a dose dependent manner.

Exhibitors
IH

Iman Hussain

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Preparation of iron oxide film by deposition from Fe(III)-nitrate: A study of the oxygen evolution r
This group conducted several experiments to understand the underlying structural qualities of high oxygen evolution reactions (OERs) and low OERs of iron oxide film deposits on fluoride-doped tin oxide plates. Structural differences on the molecular level were observed for deposits made with several different deposition and drying techniques using atomic force microscopy. In particular, the group studied the "coffee ring effect" on dried spots and were able to minimize those by placing spherical glass balls on the spots while drying, which led to a more even distribution of material.

Exhibitors
CD

Caitlyn Delgadillo

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11
FM

Feier Mo

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11
KS

Kate Samaniego

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Small But Mighty: How Micro-algae Can Generate New Transportation Fuel
When an organism is put under stress, nutrients are diverted from non vital processes and converted to fat to protect the organism. In micro-aglae, this evolutionary trait can be taken advantage of to increase the lipid content to make the micro-algae a more viable and cost-effective biofuel. Spirulina platensis is a species of cyanobacteria whose starvation profile is not well characterized. It has the potential to be a biofuel candidate because of its structure, high pH tolerance, and ability to be genetically engineered to increase lipid content. This experiment will hone in on the growth conditions that best increase the lipid content such as nitrate and phosphate deficiency, which will be tested through optical density measurements and fluorescence microscopy. Based on a review of the literature, it can be hypothesized that as the concentration of the nitrates and phosphates in the media decreases, the lipid concentration in Spirulina platensis will increase after two weeks. The purpose of increasing the lipid content is to attempt to make costs as low as possible for this biofuel to make it competitive with petroleum oil. Since this biofuel is a carbon-neutral source using it nation-wide would decrease carbon dioxide emissions and slow the greenhouse effect. An in-depth characterization of the stress-response profile for Spirulina platensis could lead to new discoveries for Spirulina and its stress response. This characterization is essential as it becomes a better candidate for biofuel, especially since it does not require clean water or arable land like biofuel from crops.

Exhibitors
DF

Danielle Fradet

Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy
Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Testing electrochemical CO2 reduction on copper foil and graphene oxide film
Our group attempted the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to ethanol using copper and graphene oxide. The motivation is the need for carbon-neutral, storable solar fuels. Graphene oxide was applied to a fluoride-doped tin oxide plate and dried on a hot plate. Reductive potential of the graphene oxide spots was tested by applying a current through the plate in a sodium hydroxide solution.

Exhibitors
KM

Katie Maruna

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11
JS

Jenny Sun

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11
MW

Melody Wu

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11
HZ

Hanaa Zerroug

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

The Absorbance of Energy by Atoms - Quantization and Photoelectric Effect
When an atom absorbs light or energy, electrons in their ground states get excited to higher states. According to the photoelectric effect, if we input enough energy, the electrons are able to eject from a metal surface. However if we do not meet that threshold energy, electrons will absorb quantized amounts of energy depending upon the electronic structure of the atom. In our experiment, we will create stock solutions of nickel and copper ions and use a visible spectrophotometer to determine the wavelength of visible light absorbed best by the substance in each solution. We will then quantify how the absorbance of the sample is related to the molar concentration of the ion in the solution, according to Beer's Law. Afterwards, we will build an apparatus to eject an electron from a metal surface with a certain amount of energy. We will learn how the ejection of an electron depends on the frequency and intensity of the light/energy source and also be able to measure Planck's constant.

Exhibitors
AB

April Bi

The Webb Schools
The Webb Schools; Grade 10
CD

Christina Dong

The Webb Schools
The Webb Schools; Grade 10


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

The development of a novel, natural treatment for memory loss in Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia; a gradual loss of memory. The disease occurs as two abnormal protein fragments called Beta Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles accumulate in the brain. Pyrroloquinoline quinone, caffeine, Methylene Blue, Withania somnifera, circumun, and grape seed extract will be combined into one product to test the mixture’s effects on AD in drosophila melanogaster (drosophila). The substances have been studied separately and have been suggested to help prevent Beta Amyloid plaques and/or neurofibrillary tangles from forming. The prediction can be made that there will be a greater result from the mixture of the combined substances because the performance will be stronger. The treated flies’ memory will be tested 24 hours after the treatment, 48 hours after the treatment, and a week after the treatment. Around 5.5 million people in the United States alone have this life-threatening disease of the brain, which increases the importance of this research.

Exhibitors
AB

Avery Bush

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

The Digit Fidget
The Digit Fidget/DigiFidge is a fidgeting device, designed for discreet and silent use underneath your desk, requiring only one hand to operate without looking. It's a tool, meant for the promotion of higher concentration in ADHD users with a tendency towards hyperactivity. The DigiFidge slides onto the edge of typical classroom desk and is played with from the bottom of the box. It provides the mindless task of poking at a ball (inside the box) with your finger through holes in the bottom of varying shapes. The DigiFidge is based on the current advancements and research into the science behind ADHD. Findings show that hyperactive children with attention problems focus better while fidgeting and are much more productive as multitaskers. By giving students a way to channel their hyperactivity through intentional fidgeting, in a way that is not disruptive to the rest of the class, the DigiFidge helps them center their brains on the primary task of focusing in class. For children with ADHD, simply concentrating during a lecture or taking notes is a difficult task. This device will make classes at school more manageable and, pending further research: regular use should lead to improved performance and classroom demeanor. It can be fixed to the desk, which eliminates the risk of it falling on the floor and it is portable from class to class. The DigiFidge is the future of promoting higher levels of focus and concentration in users with ADHD while remaining discreet.

Exhibitors
CK

Caroline Kester

Viewpoint School
Viewpoint School; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

The Effect of Musa acuminata Supplement on Dopamine Levels and Locomotory Behavior in Parkinsons
Musa Acuminata, a dopamine-rich banana native to Southeast Asia, may be a new supplement for Parkinson's (PD) patients. In PD patients, dopamine neurons die rapidly, catalyzing neurodegeneration and diminishing motor control. Through trials using different concentrations of banana supplement in nematodes with the LRRK2 PD mutation, the dopamine levels, locomotory behavior, and oxidative stress levels will be measured to study the efficacy of a natural supplement on treating a PD gene mutation.

Exhibitors
SB

Sarah Boehm

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

The Effects of D-limonene on the Inhibition of Angiogenesis in the Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane
Many deadly tumors are associated with the overexpression of angiogenesis, the growth of blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. Angiogenesis is overexpressed in vascular tumors, such as breast cancer, glioblastoma, and pancreatic cancer. When angiogenesis is overexpressed, tumor expansion and metastasis occurs. Previous experiments have shown that the inhibition of angiogenesis suppresses tumor growth and metastasis. Antiangiogenic agents, products used to inhibit angiogenesis in tumors, are classified by their ability to target blood supply to tumors by inhibiting their signaling pathways. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the signaling pathways for angiogenic targets. Preliminary research has suggested that D-limonene, an oil extracted from a citrus rind, decreases the concentration of PVF-1 (a model for VEGF) in Caenorhabditis elegans at a 50% concentration. This experiment aimed to study the effect of 50% D-limonene concentration on the inhibition of angiogenesis in the Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane. D-limonene was analyzed with the CAM Assay for its efficacy as a natural antiangiogenic agent: the response of blood vessels to D-limonene was quantified microscopically and macroscopically.

Exhibitors
AB

Ari Brown

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

The Effects of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate and Ginsenoside Rg3 on Cell Viability and Apoptosis
Previous research indicates that regulated apoptotic machinery is responsible for suppressing tumor growth and correlates with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) cell growth. Cells will be tested exposed to the two flavonoids in order to directly see the correspondence between the antioxidants and the cancer line. Cell viability and apoptosis will be measured quantitatively using a flow cytometer, and qualitatively using a microscopic imaging. In addition to testing the flavonoids’ effects on leukemia cells, anti-oxidant properties will be examined using spectrometry to determine if they are auto-oxidative or if they are reacting with the properties of the cancerous cell line. It is thought that the outcome of this portion of the experiment will result in the cancer cells eradicating in a dose dependent matter and not be auto-oxidative. Moreover, research has also suggested that the p53 gene’s activation is the key in apoptotic machinery that suppresses the tumor growth correlated with cell growth. Using this information, this study will use epigallocatechin-3-gallate and ginsenoside Rg3 to activate the p53 gene in mutated gld-1 Caenorhabditis elegans to regulate apoptosis in addition to testing directly on leukemia cells. To detect tumor growth, orange acridine dye and fluorescent microscopy will be used. The expected outcome of this research is finding tumor regression and suppression in C. elegans using epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and ginsenoside Rg3 to reinforce the hypothesis that the p53 gene is the source for cancer cell growth.

Exhibitors
SH

Seaf Hartley

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

The Effects of Haematococcus Pluvialis Sourced Astaxanthin and Casein on the Fertility Rate of Drosophila Melanogaster
This research project aims to identify a source that could be causing such high proportions of infertility, as well as find a treatment conducive to fertility and possibly reverse infertility. This project will be testing infertility by adding supplementation of either Casein, a protein found in cow’s milk and dairy products, astaxanthin, a carotenoid found in a freshwater microalgae, or a combination both into the food source of Drosophila (Drosophila Melanogaster). According to the USDA in a 2014 study, the average american consumed 614 pounds of dairy products annually. Casein has been linked to having multiple adverse effects on health including heart disease, type 1 diabetes and cancer. In addition, new research is flooding in about the health benefits of astaxanthin, a powerful antioxidant . These benefits include improving semen quality, skin, endurance, increasing lifespan and also decreasing fat and blood pressure. This research hopes to find a correlation between casein and infertility as well as astaxanthin and fertility.

Exhibitors
RE

Rachel Erickson

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

The Effects of the Yellow and Pink Light Spectrum on Aggression Levels and Behavior of Drosophila Me
Chromotherapy, the concept of using color as a form of medicine, or photobiology, has the potential to be a noninvasive, cheap treatment to both psychological and physical conditions. This study will investigate the psychological. To test the extent of certain color spectrums on the psychological side, specifically behavior and sleep patterns, Drosophila melanogaster will be used as subjects for a variety of tests. Tests will focus on two contrasting color spectrums, yellow light, and pink light. After isolation, aggression levels in flies will be measured through fighting matches. Its predicted that one color spectrum will be more powerful than the other and will be able to instill the greatest noticeable effects in initial and secondary testing.

Exhibitors
IM

Isabella Moncada

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Too Much of a Good Thing: How Excess Nutrients Create Harmful Algae Blooms
Experiments mimicking the downstream effects of fertilizer run-off on freshwater sources.

Exhibitors
LF

Lacie Fradet

Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy
Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Understanding The Fat Metabolism in Nematodes Through Fluorescence Imaging
Adding functional foods like fermented chickpeas into your diet might be all you need to effectively control Type 2 diabetes and obesity. While the healthcare costs involved with diabetes and obesity are high and the drugs used to control the disease can cause health risks, foods like fermented chickpeas that serve a therapeutic function would be a much more affordable and less harmful alternative for diabetes and obesity treatment. In my experiments, I am explore the change in fat content of C. elegans mutants that serve as a model system for Type 2 diabetes and obesity after exposed to fermented chickpea extract and BODIPY dye. The use of fluorescent dye added directly onto the growth media has allowed researchers the chance to visualize the fat content in C. elegans. My project uses fluorescence microscopy to assess the effect of fermented chickpeas extract on fat accumulation in nematodes.

Exhibitors
YZ

Yaqi Zhang

Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy
Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Water Meter Attachment for Live Usage Data
The Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences InvenTeam received $4,500 from the Lemelson-MIT InvenTeams Grant Program to invent a product that would assist homeowners and water departments in measuring domestic water usage. As California enters the fifth year of one of its worst droughts in history, consumers and suppliers of water have been strongly encouraged to lower water usage. Recognizing that 25% of used water is residential, the team has designed and manufactured the H2.O Attachment for a household water meter that provides live water usage data through a mobile application. This invention increases consumers' awareness of water usage and detects leaks. Real time access to water usage data allows for an active approach to monitoring and lowering water consumption. Additionally, correspondents at a nearby water meter facility have expressed encouragement and excitement at the prospects of integrating the attachment with current procedures and products. The device relies on a microcontroller-linked camera which sends images to a server for analysis, generating numeric data from captured image files. These figures are then converted into easily read and digested displays via the mobile application, accessible on a smartphone, tablet, or other device. The app provides real time display of water usage with a graph relating volume of water to time and easily digestible graphics, such as bath tubs and pools. The app also offers a digital badge reward system to encourage lowered consumption.

Exhibitors
JB

Jacob Brooks

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11
AF

Alex Frye

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11
AG

Alex Groenendaal-Jones

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11
AG

August Gross

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11
EB

Emma Blue Kirby

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11
AD

Andrea De Oliveria

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11
AP

Alex Pantuk

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11
SS

Sarah Saltzman

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11
JS

Jackson Stogel

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

9:15am

Zero Carbon Construction
This project is an effort to design and build a zero carbon habitable structure. I have chosen to use an unusually broad definition of "zero carbon". Zero carbon buidlings are commonly defined as a buidling that offset all carbon emissions from their operation with on-site renewable energy generation. My project is a 75 foot A-frame, off-the-grid "microshelter" - it will easily meet this definition.

Exhibitors
ZS

Zita Surprenant

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School


Saturday May 21, 2016 9:15am - 10:30am
Dining Hall

10:30am

Keynote Speaker: Dr. Gary K. Michelson, M.D.
Dr. Michelson is a board certified orthopedic spinal surgeon. He is the sole named inventor of more than 950 patents issued worldwide. His inventions have made spinal surgery much safer, more effective and reliable, less invasive, have diminished surgical blood loss, shortened operating times, reduced anesthetic exposure, reduced surgical complications, have shortened hospital stays and recovery times, and have become the gold standard throughout the world.

In 2006 Dr. Michelson was recognized as the leading researcher in spine in the world by the Paralyzed Veterans of America. In 2011 with more than seven million U. S. patents issued Dr. Michelson became one of only 400 or so American inventors living or dead to be inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. In 2014 Dr. Michelson became one of a handful of people who were then also inducted into the National Academy of Inventors. In 2011 Dr. Michelson was invited by the Presidentof the United States Barack Obama to the White House for the signing of the America Invents Act. Dr. Michelson recently received the B’nai B’rith International Distinguished Achievement Award for his accomplishments and extensive philanthropic activities. In 2015 Dr. Michelson was awarded the Albert B. Sabin Humanitarian Award. He was an invited panelist at the 2015 Forbes Philanthropy Summit.

Dr. Michelson founded, funded, funds, and directs three private foundations; an education foundation, an animal welfare foundation, and a medical research foundation.

Recently Dr. Michelson and his wife Alya donated 50 million dollars to create a convergent bioscience medical research center to be located at USC. Dr. Michelson has funded two major reforestation projects resulting in the planting of more than seven million trees.

Dr. Michelson actively serves on the boards of four charitable foundations including his Medical Research Foundation, the Twenty Million Minds Foundation, the Found Animals Foundation and the Intellectual Property Owners Education Foundation


Saturday May 21, 2016 10:30am - 11:00am
Rose Room

11:15am

A Rapid Urinary Detector for Lyme Disease

This research project was aimed to create a low-cost and rapid Lyme disease detector that does not require the capabilities of a lab and, therefore, can be used at home. The process was guided by the question, can a novel, qualitative lateral flow assay detect sparse Lyme Disease antigens in urine? The lateral flow assay was designed with the goal of taking a maximum time of 30 minutes to obtain results once the detector is dipped in urine, similar to a pregnancy test. It was crucial to design a biosensor (a detective that can test extremely low concentrations) that detects antigens and not antibodies for Lyme disease because the antibodies develop well after the antigens (OspA, OspB, OspC) have infiltrated the immune system, making early diagnosis impossible. The antigens are outer-surface proteins that are shed by the bacteria in the body before the adverse effects take place. A lateral flow assay detector that took advantage of the avidin-biotin interaction and heat shock was developed in order to answer the question. In the trials to test the detector, purchased antigens were diluted in water to reach concentration levels that would be found in the urine at various stages of the disease. Currently, tests require lab technologies, use serum, and have a low accuracy rate, and there is not a single point-of-care detector that can be taken at home and give results in real time. Thus, the success of a cost-effective, accurate and rapid self-examination urinary detector for Lyme disease is unprecedented.


Exhibitors
MY

Marine Yamada

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:15am - 11:30am
Room 216

11:15am

Effect of Green Coffee Bean Extract on Obesity and Alzheimer[?]s Disease in C. elegans

Alzheimer[?]s (AD), a neurodegenerative disease suffered nationwide, is the most common form of dementia and worsens as it progresses. Extracellular beta-amyloid protein deposits constitute amyloid plaques in brains that are affected by Alzheimer[?]s. In addition, hyperphosphorylated tau proteins contribute to the plaque build-up through constructing neurofibrillary tangles. No clear treatment has been able to stop the disease or reverse its progression. However, connections between Alzheimer's and obesity have been established to further the search for a cure in AD. The study featured transgenic AD models of C. elegans as test subjects, either individually possessing mutated beta amyloids or hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. A transgenic model possessing the tub-1 gene will serve to measure obesity. Natural homeopathic antioxidants, specifically green coffee bean extract, have been shown to reduce inflammation and weight gain factors in obesity. Through a chemotaxis assay, green coffee bean extract tested the relation between the supplement's ability to suppress weight gain and improve memory conditions in transgenic models of C. elegans at different dosages. The effect of green coffee bean extract on protein buildup in the modified AD C. elegans models was then confirmed through a thioflavin-S staining assay.


Exhibitors
MA

Madelyn Arzt

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:15am - 11:30am
Room 125

11:15am

Effect of Magnetic Fields on the Arion distinctus in the Presence of Various Wavelengths of Light

The electromagnetic sensing ability found in many different vertebrates and invertebrates is mostly mediated through the opioid receptors, which receive and use opioids to control the feeling of pain. This sensing ability has been shown to be light dependent on the Cepea nemoralis (garden snail). Most of this research has been done using the Cepea nemoralis (garden snail) but very little been done using the Arion distinctus (land slug). This experiment continues the research done by Garrick et al (2015), using the Arion distinctus as the experimental subject and the Cepea nemoralis as a control group. The experiment was conducted by injecting the slugs and snails with an Enkephalinase Inhibitor, followed by a 15min exposure to a ±60μT magnetic field while the slugs are placed in two different wavelengths of light (red light- 730 nm and blue light - 455nm). This research tested the effect of the different wavelengths of light on the electromagnetic sensing abilities of the Arion distinctus (garden slug). This work is significant because it expands our current knowledge on how many animals sense and interact with their environment. In addition, it furthers our understanding of electromagnetic sensing in invertebrates and how it relates to light sensing. This research also demonstrates a new species with this electromagnetic sensing ability.


Exhibitors
SG

Sofia Garrick

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:15am - 11:30am
Room 124

11:15am

Testing electrochemical CO2 reduction on copper foil and graphene oxide film

Our group attempted the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to ethanol using copper and graphene oxide. The motivation is the need for carbon-neutral, storable solar fuels. Graphene oxide was applied to a fluoride-doped tin oxide plate and dried on a hot plate. Reductive potential of the graphene oxide spots was tested by applying a current through the plate in a sodium hydroxide solution.


Exhibitors
KM

Katie Maruna

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11
JS

Jenny Sun

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11
MW

Melody Wu

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11
HZ

Hanaa Zerroug

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:15am - 11:30am
Room 218

11:15am

The Absorbance of Energy by Atoms - Quantization and Photoelectric Effect
When an atom absorbs light or energy, electrons in their ground states get excited to higher states. According to the photoelectric effect, if we input enough energy, the electrons are able to eject from a metal surface. However if we do not meet that threshold energy, electrons will absorb quantized amounts of energy depending upon the electronic structure of the atom. In our experiment, we will create stock solutions of nickel and copper ions and use a visible spectrophotometer to determine the wavelength of visible light absorbed best by the substance in each solution. We will then quantify how the absorbance of the sample is related to the molar concentration of the ion in the solution, according to Beer's Law. Afterwards, we will build an apparatus to eject an electron from a metal surface with a certain amount of energy. We will learn how the ejection of an electron depends on the frequency and intensity of the light/energy source and also be able to measure Planck's constant.

Exhibitors
AB

April Bi

The Webb Schools
The Webb Schools; Grade 10
CD

Christina Dong

The Webb Schools
The Webb Schools; Grade 10


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:15am - 11:30am
Room 123

11:15am

Understanding The Fat Metabolism in Nematodes Through Fluorescence Imaging
Adding functional foods like fermented chickpeas into your diet might be all you need to effectively control Type 2 diabetes and obesity. While the healthcare costs involved with diabetes and obesity are high and the drugs used to control the disease can cause health risks, foods like fermented chickpeas that serve a therapeutic function would be a much more affordable and less harmful alternative for diabetes and obesity treatment. In my experiments, I am explore the change in fat content of C. elegans mutants that serve as a model system for Type 2 diabetes and obesity after exposed to fermented chickpea extract and BODIPY dye. The use of fluorescent dye added directly onto the growth media has allowed researchers the chance to visualize the fat content in C. elegans. My project uses fluorescence microscopy to assess the effect of fermented chickpeas extract on fat accumulation in nematodes.

Exhibitors
YZ

Yaqi Zhang

Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy
Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:15am - 11:30am
Room 217

11:15am

Water Meter Attachment for Live Usage Data
The Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences InvenTeam received $4,500 from the Lemelson-MIT InvenTeams Grant Program to invent a product that would assist homeowners and water departments in measuring domestic water usage. As California enters the fifth year of one of its worst droughts in history, consumers and suppliers of water have been strongly encouraged to lower water usage. Recognizing that 25% of used water is residential, the team has designed and manufactured the H2.O Attachment for a household water meter that provides live water usage data through a mobile application. This invention increases consumers[?] awareness of water usage and detects leaks. Real time access to water usage data allows for an active approach to monitoring and lowering water consumption. Additionally, correspondents at a nearby water meter facility have expressed encouragement and excitement at the prospects of integrating the attachment with current procedures and products. The device relies on a microcontroller-linked camera which sends images to a server for analysis, generating numeric data from captured image files. These figures are then converted into easily read and digested displays via the mobile application, accessible on a smartphone, tablet, or other device. The app provides real time display of water usage with a graph relating volume of water to time and easily digestible graphics, such as bath tubs and pools. The app also offers a digital badge reward system to encourage lowered consumption.

Exhibitors
JB

Jacob Brooks

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11
AF

Alex Frye

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11
AG

Alex Groenendaal-Jones

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11
AG

August Gross

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11
EB

Emma Blue Kirby

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11
AD

Andrea De Oliveria

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11
AP

Alex Pantuk

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11
SS

Sarah Saltzman

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11
JS

Jackson Stogel

Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences
Crossroads School for Arts & Sciences; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:15am - 11:30am
IDEAlab

11:35am

Construction & Analysis of a D.I.Y. Spectrophotometer: Can I get a Watt Watt?

A spectrophotometer is an integral part of a traditional chemistry course for most high school students. It is a tool that measures absorption of visible light and is used by scientists in real world situations including, but not limited to, research in the life sciences, chemistry, and deep-sea exploration. Depending on the capabilities, however, the price for a spectrophotometer ranges from a few hundred dollars to tens of thousands. Our goal is to replicate an experiment to build a spectrophotometer utilizing Apple technology (iPhones & iPads) and Windows software, which are more accessible and cost efficient to schools that lack the funding for a standard spectrophotometer. Once we have built the spectrophotometer, we plan to run multiple experiments to test the precision and accuracy of our instrument in comparison to a standard classroom spectrophotometer. We will also conduct a detailed cost analysis of typical classroom spectrophotometers compared to our home-made version. If the iPhone/iPad is able to complete experiments with just as much precision and accuracy as the spectrophotometer, students around the world will be able to access lab experiences that they might not have been able to previously.


Exhibitors
AR

Anjali Reddy

The Webb Schools; Grade 10
MS

Madison Steinorth

The Webb Schools
The Webb Schools; Grade 10


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:35am - 11:50am
Room 123

11:35am

Effects Ocean Acidification on Dimethylsulfide Production by Emiliania Huxleyi

Dimethyl sulfide is a trace gas commonly produced by marine algae. Recent studies indicate that dimethyl sulfide plays an important role in cloud formation which, in turn, has potential to impact global climate. However, the burning of fossil fuels has polluted the air with excess CO2 which is absorbed by the ocean. This results in ocean acidification. This study will determine how ocean acidification will affect the overall production of dimethyl sulfide in relatively acidic waters.


Exhibitors
LN

Leyla Namazie

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:35am - 11:50am
Room 124

11:35am

Going Into the Light: The Effects of Antioxidants On Planarian Negative Phototactic Behavior

Photophobia, also known as light sensitivity, is an intolerance towards light. Photophobia is not an eye disease, but it can be a symptom of other illnesses such as severe headaches and migraines. Antioxidants may help with alleviating migraines and decreasing oxidative stress, therefore decreasing light sensitivity. Planarians are free-living aquatic flatworms whose photophobic response to light can be tested because of their central nervous system and basic cerebral eyes connected to the brain. In this experiment, the planarians were split into 4 groups: a control group not treated with any antioxidant, a group treated for 15 days with Lutein, a group treated for 15 days with vitamin A, and a group treated for 15 days with vitamin C. They were placed in a testing dish divided into 4 quadrants, and a light was placed above the testing dish. Their responses to the light were recorded in 2 minute intervals. The questions being answered were, how do the antioxidants Lutein, vitamin A, and vitamin C each affect the planarian negative phototactic behavior? In other words, do planarians become less sensitive to light when given an antioxidant? If so, which of the three antioxidants helps combat photophobia the most? This research is important because it will help further our understanding of eye development in humans and help discover more effective ways to deal with photophobia.


Exhibitors
HC

Haley Cohen

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:35am - 11:50am
Room 216

11:35am

Killer Combos: Cooperative Cytotoxicity of Plant Hormones with Known Chemotherapy

Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA), a plant stress hormone, has been shown to selectively target cancer cells and induce apoptosis by dissociating hexokinase, a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway that is overexpressed in cancer cells, from the outer mitochondrial membrane. Because MeJA uses the glycolytic pathway to induce apoptosis, specifically targeting hexokinase, it functions well as a selective cytotoxic agent and sensitizes other chemotherapeutic agents to have increased efficacy in cancer cytotoxicity. Perillyl Alcohol (POH), a plant-derived hormone, has been used in combination therapies for cancer treatment and has been found to have similar sensitizing cytotoxic effects to MeJA. Although it has successfully induced apoptosis in a variety of cell lines, the mechanisms by which POH acts are unknown . In this study we aimed to contribute to the characterization of POH[?]s apoptotic mechanisms through a comparative study of combination treatments between MeJA and POH with common chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin and etoposide). Cytotoxicity levels were tested in SKBR3 breast cancer cell lines and assayed using the Sulforhodamine B dye and microplate readers. In addition to the SKBR3 cell lines we tested two mutants of the same cell lines that express the molecules tDrrp and T75A. tDrrp is the truncated form of a protein that allows breast cancer to become resistant to herceptin treatment; T75A is tDrrp’s mutant that is supposed to render it inactive. Our research progressed to a data collection and analysis of POH and MJ combination effects on tDrrp expressing cancer cells, and normal cancer cells.


Exhibitors
LD

Laura DiPietro

Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy
Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:35am - 11:50am
Room 217

11:35am

Preparation of iron oxide film by deposition from Fe(III)-nitrate: A study of the oxygen evolution r

This group conducted several experiments to understand the underlying structural qualities of high oxygen evolution reactions (OERs) and low OERs of iron oxide film deposits on fluoride-doped tin oxide plates. Structural differences on the molecular level were observed for deposits made with several different deposition and drying techniques using atomic force microscopy. In particular, the group studied the "coffee ring effect" on dried spots and were able to minimize those by placing spherical glass balls on the spots while drying, which led to a more even distribution of material.


Exhibitors
CD

Caitlyn Delgadillo

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11
FM

Feier Mo

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11
KS

Kate Samaniego

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:35am - 11:50am
Room 218

11:35am

Small But Mighty: How Micro-algae Can Generate New Transportation Fuel

When an organism is put under stress, nutrients are diverted from non vital processes and converted to fat to protect the organism. In micro-aglae, this evolutionary trait can be taken advantage of to increase the lipid content to make the micro-algae a more viable and cost-effective biofuel. Spirulina platensis is a species of cyanobacteria whose starvation profile is not well characterized. It has the potential to be a biofuel candidate because of its structure, high pH tolerance, and ability to be genetically engineered to increase lipid content. This experiment will hone in on the growth conditions that best increase the lipid content such as nitrate and phosphate deficiency, which will be tested through optical density measurements and fluorescence microscopy. Based on a review of the literature, it can be hypothesized that as the concentration of the nitrates and phosphates in the media decreases, the lipid concentration in [?]Spirulina platensis will increase after two weeks. The purpose of increasing the lipid content is to attempt to make costs as low as possible for this biofuel to make it competitive with petroleum oil. Since this biofuel is a carbon-neutral source using it nation-wide would decrease carbon dioxide emissions and slow the greenhouse effect. An in-depth characterization of the stress-response profile for Spirulina platensis could lead to new discoveries for Spirulina and its stress response. This characterization is essential as it becomes a better candidate for biofuel, especially since it does not require clean water or arable land like biofuel from crops.


Exhibitors
DF

Danielle Fradet

Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy
Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:35am - 11:50am
Room 125

11:35am

The Effects of Haematococcus Pluvialis Sourced Astaxanthin and Casein on the Fertility Rate of Drosophila Melanogaster
This research project aims to identify a source that could be causing such high proportions of infertility, as well as find a treatment conducive to fertility and possibly reverse infertility. This project will be testing infertility by adding supplementation of either Casein, a protein found in cow’s milk and dairy products, astaxanthin, a carotenoid found in a freshwater microalgae, or a combination both into the food source of Drosophila (Drosophila Melanogaster). According to the USDA in a 2014 study, the average american consumed 614 pounds of dairy products annually. Casein has been linked to having multiple adverse effects on health including heart disease, type 1 diabetes and cancer. In addition, new research is flooding in about the health benefits of astaxanthin, a powerful antioxidant . These benefits include improving semen quality, skin, endurance, increasing lifespan and also decreasing fat and blood pressure. This research hopes to find a correlation between casein and infertility as well as astaxanthin and fertility.

Exhibitors
RE

Rachel Erickson

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:35am - 11:50am
IDEAlab

11:55am

A Comparative Analysis of Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence: Nature's Light Show

Bioluminescence has broad and unexpected commercial applications, from its proposed use in streetlights to crop growth indicators. In our research, we are exploring both the processes and the proteins involved in bioluminescence. The first portion of our experimentation will consist of analyzing known concentrations of chemiluminescent solutions, attempting to utilize a visible spectrophotometer to understand and quantify luminescence and generate a calibration curve relating concentration to chemiluminescence. We will then study the process of bioluminescence in dinoflagellates and vibrio fischeri and take data in the same manner, hoping to both quantify the proteins in the lab and learn about their mechanism of action. By using a lux meter in a light-controlled enclosure we will analyze exactly how exposure to light and darkness over time affects the organisms' ability to luminesce. The concluding portion of our research will consist of analyzing how pollutants could affect the brightness and longevity of dinoflagellate and vibrio fischeri luminescence.


Exhibitors
AD

Andi Delgado

The Webb Schools
The Webb Schools; Grade 10
EH

Emily Hupe

The Webb Schools
The Webb Schools; Grade 10


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:55am - 12:10pm
Room 123

11:55am

Assembly of an easy-to-modify photosynthetic bacterial chassis.

The goal of the project is to move genes for Photosystem II from the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii into E. coli bacteria for use as a hydrogen-producer and potential biofuel. PSII is capable of photo-electrolyzing water efficiently and inexpensively with sunlight. Within PSII, enzymes capture photons of light to energize electrons that are then transferred through a variety of coenzymes and cofactors to reduce plastoquinone to plastoquinol. The energized electrons are replaced by oxidizing water to form molecular oxygen and hydrogen ions, which can be used as fuel and for other uses. C. reinhardtii was selected due to its ability, under certain circumstances to switch from oxygen to hydrogen production. However, C. reinhardtii is slow-growing and difficult to manipulate relative to well-studied bacteria like E. coli, so we have begun the process of moving the core genes of PSII into E. coli, beginning with genes psbD and psbT.


Exhibitors
LC

Laura Chen

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 10
VC

Victoria Chen

Alverno High School; Grade 10
EW

Evina Wang

Alverno High School
Alverno High School; Grade 10


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:55am - 12:10pm
Room 218

11:55am

Is Phosphorus the Missing Ingredient for Bioremediation Success?

Oil spills have proven to be catastrophic messes that are difficult to clean up. Skims, booms, in situ burning, and chemical dispersants are a few of the many methods to remove the pollution; yet they are not the safest or most effective. Bioremediation–a naturally occurring process that breaks down the oil– can clear nearly 100% of the spill and does not harm the spill site[?]s native organisms, but the bioremediators, such as the bacteria–Alcanivorax borkumensis –are too slow to show immediate success. With the presence of specific nutrients, bioremediation has the potential to become the leading cleanup method. The effect of nutrients available to Alcanivorax borkumensis in its growth media was tested. Previous work has shown the importance of nitrogen supplied to the bacteria in different forms, whether it is provided as a nitrate (KNO3) or the organic nitrogen present in the peptone ingredient of the standard growth media. It has also been shown that phosphorus is an important supplement for bacterial bioremediation. Moreover, fertilizers that provide nitrogen and phosphorus have improved the bioremediation effect of Alcanivorax. However, studies looking at changes in solely the phosphorus concentration available to the bacteria are limited. Using a broth to recreate oceanic conditions, my work explores how varying the phosphorus ingredient can influence overall bacterial growth of the responsible bioremediator– Alcanivorax borkumensis.


Exhibitors
KM

Kristina Mercolino

Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy
Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:55am - 12:10pm
Room 217

11:55am

Muscadine Grape Seed Extract as a Treatment for Obesity in Tub-1 C. elegans

The objective of this research was to test if Muscadine Grape seed extract had an effect on lowering triglyceride levels in C. elegans. By testing Muscadine Grape seed extract's effect on lowering triglyceride content levels, Muscadine Grape seed extract[?]s potential as a treatment for obesity could be determined.For this research both the N2 wild type and tub-1 mutant C. elegans, which model the presence of obesity in the body, were utilized. The tub-1 mutant, which lacked the ability to regulate lipid or fat accumulation and as a result had excess body fat, showed the effects of Muscadine Grape seed extract as a treatment for obesity by lowering the C. elegan’s fat levels. This experiment used a Triglyceride Colorimetric Assay which measured Triglyceride, the main constituent of animal fat, amounts in the body. In the assay, Triglyceride was broken down into free fatty acids and glycerol. Then the plate reader read the sample to determine the amount of glycerol there was in each well, which correlated to how much Triglyceride there was in each well. Each well contained homogenized C. elegans fed either 5%, 10%, or 15% Muscadine Grape seed extract or no Muscadine Grape seed extract at all (Control). This meant that the assay showed the difference in triglyceride content between the different doses of Muscadine Grape seed extract, determining if Muscadine Grape seed extract was treatment for obesity and lowered Triglyceride levels in a dose dependent manner.


Exhibitors
IH

Iman Hussain

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:55am - 12:10pm
Room 216

11:55am

The Digit Fidget
The Digit Fidget/DigiFidge is a fidgeting device, designed for discreet and silent use underneath your desk, requiring only one hand to operate without looking. It’s a tool, meant for the promotion of higher concentration in ADHD users with a tendency towards hyperactivity. The DigiFidge slides onto the edge of typical classroom desk and is played with from the bottom of the box. It provides the mindless task of poking at a ball (inside the box) with your finger through holes in the bottom of varying shapes. The DigiFidge is based on the current advancements and research into the science behind ADHD. Findings show that hyperactive children with attention problems focus better while fidgeting and are much more productive as multitaskers. By giving students a way to channel their hyperactivity through intentional fidgeting, in a way that is not disruptive to the rest of the class, the DigiFidge helps them center their brains on the primary task of focusing in class. For children with ADHD, simply concentrating during a lecture or taking notes is a difficult task. This device will make classes at school more manageable and, pending further research: regular use should lead to improved performance and classroom demeanor. It can be fixed to the desk, which eliminates the risk of it falling on the floor and it is portable from class to class. The DigiFidge is the future of promoting higher levels of focus and concentration in users with ADHD while remaining discreet.

Exhibitors
CK

Caroline Kester

Viewpoint School
Viewpoint School; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:55am - 12:10pm
Room 125

11:55am

The Effects of D-limonene on the Inhibition of Angiogenesis in the Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane

Many deadly tumors are associated with the overexpression of angiogenesis, the growth of blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. Angiogenesis is overexpressed in vascular tumors, such as breast cancer, glioblastoma, and pancreatic cancer. When angiogenesis is overexpressed, tumor expansion and metastasis occurs. Previous experiments have shown that the inhibition of angiogenesis suppresses tumor growth and metastasis. Antiangiogenic agents, products used to inhibit angiogenesis in tumors, are classified by their ability to target blood supply to tumors by inhibiting their signaling pathways. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the signaling pathways for angiogenic targets. Preliminary research has suggested that D-limonene, an oil extracted from a citrus rind, decreases the concentration of PVF-1 (a model for VEGF) in Caenorhabditis elegans at a 50% concentration. This experiment aimed to study the effect of 50% D-limonene concentration on the inhibition of angiogenesis in the Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane. D-limonene was analyzed with the CAM Assay for its efficacy as a natural antiangiogenic agent: the response of blood vessels to D-limonene was quantified microscopically and macroscopically.


Exhibitors
AB

Ari Brown

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:55am - 12:10pm
Room 124

11:55am

Water Monitoring System with Adjustable Aerator

The Archer School for Girls’ InvenTeam has invented a compact faucet attachment that monitors water usage and encourages eco-friendly, water-saving behaviors. Our device has an adjustable aerator to enable the most efficient water use and an integrated digital water meter which compares usage to the recommended amount. It also has a thread adapter to ensure that it fits on most household sinks.

Our invention promotes two primary functions which promote conservation and awareness. Users will be able to input the number of people in their house and compare the amount of water they use to locally recommended amounts. The aerator will allow users to adjust water pressure and flow pattern for most efficient use. For example, the amount of water released on the hand-wash setting will be significantly less than that of the dishwashing setting. The invention will encourage efficient, conscientious water usage to help mitigate the effects of the California drought, one home at a time.

Exhibitors
RE

Rachel Erickson

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 11
AF

Alexandra Feldman

The Archer School for Girls; Grade 10
CG

Claire Germano

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 10
UH

Uma Halsted

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 10
IH

Iman Hussain

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12
AI

Aviva Intveld

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 9
RK

Ruby Krull

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 10
IM

Iman Mohammed

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 10
IM

Isabella Moncada

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12
AM

Annie Moore

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 11
CO

Carina Oriel

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12
EP

Elyse Pollack

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 10
MR

Marcela Riddick

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 12
AR

Annabelle Robertson

The Archer School for Girls; Grade 11
AR

Ava Rothenberg

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 6
IS

Isabella Simanowitz

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 10
CT

Ciel Torres

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 11
MW

Maya Wernick

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 10
IW

Isabelle Wilson

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 11
LW

Lola Wolf

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 9
CZ

Claire Zeller

The Archer School for Girls
The Archer School for Girls; Grade 11


Saturday May 21, 2016 11:55am - 12:10pm
IDEAlab

12:15pm

Lunch, Raffle & Awards

Please stay for lunch and connect with one another as we raffle STEM prizes and announce the winner of the Archer RISE Award.


Saturday May 21, 2016 12:15pm - 1:30pm
Courtyard